In this connexion it is of interest to note that, both in the Mediterranean islands and in West Africa, dwarf elephants of the African type are accompanied by pigmy species of hippopotamus, although we have not yet evidence to show that in Africa the two animals occupy actually the same area.
It is the home of the Columbia black-tail deer, western raccoon, Oregon spotted skunk, Douglas red squirrel, Townsends chipmunk, tailless sewellel (Haplodcn rufus), peculiar species of pocket gophers and voles, Pacific coast forms of the great-horned, spotted, screech and pigmy owls, sooty grouse, Oregon ruffed grouse, Stellers jay, chestnutbacked chickadee and Pacific winter wren.
But there are also species, though not Passerine, which are absolutely identical with those of Britain, the barn owl, common quail, pigmy rail, and little grebe or dabchick, all of them common and apparently resident in the island.
The flying species are also distinguished from ordinary flyingsquirrels by the circumstance that the additional bone serving for the support of the fore part of the flying-membrane rises Pigmy African Flying-Squirrel (Idiurus zenkeri).
Neotragus is represented by the pigmy royal antelope (N.
This view may receive some support from the occurrence of a dwarf form of the African elephant in the Congo; and if we regard the latter as a subspecies of Elephas africanus, it seems highly probable that a similar position will have to be assigned to the pigmy European fossil elephants.
Labiatus), skunk (Mephitis, Spilogale and Conepatus), marten, several species of opossum (including a pigmy species of the Tres Marias islands), sloth, two species of ant-bear (Myrmecophaga tetradactylus and Cyclothurus didactylus), armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), a small arboreal porcupine (Synetheres mexicanus), the kinkajou (Cercoleptes caudivolvulus), three species of deer - the white-tailed Cariacus toltecus, the little black-faced brocket, Coassus rufinus, which is also found in Brazil, and the Sonora deer (Odocoileus couesi) - the Mexican bighorn (Ovis mexicanus) of Chihuahua, at least two species of hare (Lepus calotis and L.
The Nannosciurinae, or second sub-family of Sciuridae, are represented only by the pigmy squirrels (Nannosciurus), characterized by their very short-crowned molars (which approximate to those of dormice in structure) and small premolars, of which the first upper pair is often deciduous, while the upper molars have only three oblique ridges.
Among the more remarkable forms are a species of hippopotamus, the elephant (including a pigmy variety), and a gigantic dormouse.
The pigmy whale (Neobalaena marginata), for instance, has only been met with in the seas round Australia, New Zealand and South America, while a beaked whale (Berardius arnouxi) appears to be confined to the New Zealand seas.