The closing of the French market to Sicilian produce, the devastation wrought by the phylloxera and the decrease of the sulphur trade had combined to produce in Sicily a discontent of which Socialist agitators took advantage to organize the workmen of the towns and the peasants of the country into groups known as fasci.
Closely related to the typical aphides is Phylloxera vastatrix, the insect which causes enormous loss by attacking the leaves and roots of vines.
The Phylloxera vastatrix is an insect belonging to the green fly tribe, which destroys the roots and leaves of the growing plant by forming galls and nodosities.
This falling away in the taste for Madeira is partly ascribable to fashion and partly to the temporary devastation of the vineyards by the phylloxera in the middle of last century.
The vine has been attacked by the Oidium Tuckeri, the Phylloxera vastatrix and the Peronospora viticola, which in rapid succession wrought great havoc in Italian vineyards.
The following full description of the only species which attacks the vine, the Phylloxera vastatrix, or grape-louse, is reprinted from the article Vine in the 9th edition of this encyclopaedia.
Or crippling of many of the French vineyards during the phylloxera period.
In Les Mceurs de la phylloxera de la vigne (1877); Dreyfus, Uber Phylloxerinen (1889); Lichtenstein, Histoire du phylloxera; the Rapports annuels a la commission superieure du phylloxera; and the excellent Report on Phylloxera drawn up by the Hon.
One is to kill the phylloxera itself; another, to destroy it along with the infected vines, and plant fresh and healthy plants; the third, to adapt the secular therapeutics of nature, and to introduce American vines which a long acquaintance with the phylloxera has made immune of its ravages.
The particular species of phylloxera which attacks the vine is a native of the United States, probably originating among the wild vines of the Colorado district.