Para-oxyazobenzene (benzene-azo-phenol), C 6 H 5 N: N (1) C6H4 011(4), is prepared by coupling diazotized aniline with phenol in alkaline solution.
The secondary amines may be of two types-namely,the purely aromatic amines, and the mixed secondary amines, which contain an aromatic residue and an alkyl group. The purely aromatic amines result upon heating the primary amines with their hydrochlorides, and, in some cases, by heating a phenol with a primary amine and anhydrous zinc chloride.
Substitution of the Benzene Ring.-As a general rule, homologues and mono-derivatives of benzene react more readily with substituting agents than the parent hydrocarbon; for example, phenol is converted into tribromphenol by the action of bromine water, and into the nitrophenols by dilute nitric acid; similar activity characterizes aniline.
Xanthene, C13H100, may be synthesized by condensing phenol with ortho-cresol in the presence of aluminium chloride.
In order to obtain the phenol from this distillate, it is treated with caustic soda, which dissolves the phenol and its homologues tegether with a certain quantity of naphthalene and other hydrocarbons.
Benzidine finds commercial application since its tetrazo compound couples readily with amino-sulphonic acids, phenol carboxylic acids, and phenol and naphthol-sulphonic acids to produce substantive cotton dyes (see Dyeing).
The metallic derivatives (phenolates, phenates or carbolates) of the alkali metals are obtained by dissolving phenol in a solution of a caustic alkali, in the absence of air.
Industry, 1899, 18, p. 553) adds excess of sodamide to a solution of the phenol in a suitable solvent, absorbs the liberated ammonia in an excess of acid, and titrates the excess of acid.
Doebner's preparation of mesotartaric acid, the internally compensated tartaric acid, (CH(OH) COOH)21 by oxidizing phenol with dilute potassium permanganate (Ber., 1891,.
When heated with aniline it yields phenol and acetanilide.