After a short period of government by a committee of three, the congress elected Don Jose de la Riva Aguero to be first president of Peru on the 28th of February 1823.
The Austro-Prussian War of 1866, the war between Chile and Peru in 1882, and that between Greece and Turkey in 1897, are instances of wars brought to a close through the mediation of neutral powers.
Clark, Twelve Months in Peru (London, 1891); Geo.
General Iglesias was nominated to the office of president of the republic, and in October 1883 a treaty of peace, known as the treaty of Ancon, between Peru and Chile was signed.
In the 16th century the city was the strongest Spanish fortress in the New World, excepting Cartagena, and gold and silver were brought hither by ship from Peru and were carried across the Isthmus to Chagres, but as Spain's fleets even in the Pacific were more and more often attacked in the 17th century, Panama became less important, though it was still the chief Spanish port on the Pacific. In 1671 the city was destroyed by Henry Morgan, the buccaneer; it was rebuilt in 1673 by Alfonzo Mercado de Villacorta about five miles west of the old site and nearer the roadstead.
Practically the whole Andean region of Peru is mineral-bearinga region 1500 m.
In Mexico and Peru they fell under the ban of the Inquisition.
The tribes of Peru are said to have adored great snakes in the pre-Inca days; and in Chile the Araucanians made a serpent figure in their deluge myth.
Feeling strongly the necessity that Peru had for repose, and the guilt of civil dissension, he wrote patriotic poems which became very popular.
The country between Peru and Panama was subdued before 1537 by the conquest of Quito by Sebastian de Benalcazar 'and of New Granada by Jimenez de Quesada.