The population of the Pernambuco sertao has always been noted for its turbulent, lawless character, due partly to distance from the coast where the bulk of the population is concentrated, partly to difficult means of communication, and partly to the fact that this remote region has long been the refuge of criminals from the coast towns.
The railways of the state are the Recife and Sao Francisco (77 m.), Central de Pernambuco (132 m.) and Sul de Pernambuco (120 m.) - all government properties leased to the Great Western of Brazil Railway Co., Ltd., since 1901.
Ceara., Bahia, and Rio de Janeiro are celebrated for their oranges, and Pernambuco for its delicious pineapples.
The proclamation of a republic in the provinces of Pernambuco and Ceara, with the rebellion of the Cisplatina province, favoured by Buenos Aires and its ultimate loss to Brazil, were the result of the coup d'Nat of November 1823.
Another exception is that of the Pernambuco coast, where the rainy season comes between March and August, with the heaviest rainfall from May to July, which is the time of the southern winter.
The capitania of Pernambuco was ably governed and took an active part in the expulsion of the French from the trading posts established along the coast northward to Maranhao, and in establishing Portuguese colonies in their places.
The Oldembourg Company (1754) received a monopoly of trade with the Portuguese colonies in the East; extensive monopolist rights were also conceded to the Path and Maranhao Company (1755) and the Pernambuco and Parahyba Company (1759).
A coastwise cable runs from Para to Montevideo with double cables between Pernambuco and Montevideo.
Another conspiracy to establish a republican government was promptly smothered in Bahia, and the outbreak in Pernambuco was put down after a republic had been formed there for ninety days.
In 1817 Pernambuco was the scene of a revolutionary outbreak, which resulted in the separation of the present states of Alagoas and Rio Grande do Norte, Ceara and Parahyba having been detached in 1799.