Valonia, a material largely used by tanners, is the pericarp of an acorn obtained in the neighbouring oakwoods, and derives its name from Valona.
Fruit ofSporo- bolus, showing the dehiscent pericarp and seed.
When the fruit is collected the pericarp is first removed; then the arillus is carefully stripped off and dried, in which state it forms the mace of commerce.
Commercial cubebs consist of the dried berries, usually with their stalks attached; the pericarp is greyish-brown, or blackish and wrinkled; and the seed, when present, is hard, white and oily.
Sometimes the pericarp is membranous, sometimes hard, forming a nut, as in some genera of Bambuseae, while in other Bambuseae it becomes thick and fleshy, forming a berry often as large as an apple.
Development of larva and seed go on together, a few of the seeds serving as food for the insect, which when mature eats through the pericarp and drops to the ground, remaining dormant in its cocoon until the next season of flowering when it emerges as a moth.