The penury and barbarism of Polish circumstances are graphically described in his and his wife's letters of this period.
In the penury of the dockyards Holmes could not be provided with the force he was promised, and the enterprise was but partially successful.
The result of his experiments was that he found himself completely impoverished, and lived in penury for the remainder of his life.
As the war went on the naval power of the Greeks diminished, partly owing to the penury of their treasury, and partly to the growth of piracy in the general anarchy of the Eastern Mediterranean.
But the penury of the treasury made it impossible to maintain a permanent naval force to protect the coast against the Barbary pirates.