Ferreira and four companions were tried for murder and convicted, February 1907, the death sentences being commuted to terms of penal servitude.
Charitable and Penal Institutions.--Virginia has four hospitals for the insane: the Eastern State Hospital (1773), at Williamsburg; the South-Western State Hospital (1887), at Marion; the Western State Hospital (1828), with an epileptic colony, at Staunton; and the Central State Hospital (1870; for negroes), at Petersburg.
The way was further prepared by a lenient use of the penal laws.
Middleton is said to have been so irritated that he endeavoured to put the penal laws in force against his antagonist, who prudently withdrew from London.
In return for this negligence the Thebans fastened a religious quarrel upon their neighbours, and secured a penal decree against them from the Amphictyonic synod (356).
The number of penal proceedings, especially those within the competence of praetors, has also increased,, chiefly on account of the frequency of minor contraventions of the law referred to in the section Crime.
Oran became the penal settlement of Spain, but neither the convicts nor the noblemen in disgrace who were also banished thither seem to have been under rigorous surveillance; contemporary accounts speak of constant fetes, games and bull-fights.
A fresh conference of the powers assembled at Brussels, on the invitation of the Belgian government, on the 7th of June 1898; and although the British delegates were not empowered to consent to a penal clause imposing countervailing duties on bountied sugar, the Belgian premier, who presided, was able to assure them that if Great Britain would agree to such a clause, he could guarantee the accession of the governments of Germany, Austria, Holland and his own.
In spite of the gravity of the charges formulated against many prominent men, the report merely deplored and disapproved of their conduct, without proposing penal proceedings.
Merlin's code abolished confiscation, branding and imprisonment for life, and was based chiefly on the penal code drawn up in September 1791.