The east road is the great Tung-kwan road, which forms the principal means of communication between Peking and the northeastern provinces of the empire, and Sze-ch'uen, Yun-nan and Tibet.
The town is built on a vast alluvial plain, which extends from the mountains beyond Peking to the sea, and through which the Peiho runs a circuitous course, making the distance by water from Tientsin to the coast about 70 m.
Relations between Sun Yat-sen and Yuan Shih-k'ai were never cordial, but until the ejection from Peking of the Kuo Min-tang Radicals by the President Dictator in 1913, they preserved the appearance of goodwill, and towards the end of 1912 Sun accepted a highly paid appointment as Director of National Railways at Shanghai.
Wade he appointed him minister plenipotentiary at Peking (1885).
Oliphant, A Diary of the Siege of the Legations in Peking during the Summer of 7900 (London, 1901); A.
The Jesuit Antonio Andrada, a native of Portugal (1580-1634), travelling from India, appears to have entered Tibet on the west, in the Manasarowar Lake region, and made his way across to Tangut and north-western China; in 1661 the Jesuit fathers Johann Grueber (an Austrian) and Albert D 'Orville (a Belgian) travelled from Peking via Tangut to Lhasa, and thence through Nepal to India.
The British government, in view of the apparent intention of China to establish effective suzerainty in Tibet, drew the attention of the government at Peking to the necessity of strictly observing its treaty obligations, and especially pointing out that the integrity of the frontier states of Nepal, Bhutan and Sikkim must be respected.
But by the middle of October the Chinese army was decisively defeated; Peking was occupied; those British and French prisoners who had not succumbed to the hardships of their confinement were liberated.
It was to Si-gan Fu that the emperor and dowager empress retreated on the capture of Peking by the allied armies in August 190o; and it was once again constituted the capital of the empire until the following spring when the court returned to Peking, after the conclusion of peace.
The inhabitants of Peking being consumers only, and in no way producers, the trade of the city is very small, though the city is open to foreign commerce.