The stone mace head was a sharp-edged disk (3), in the prehistoric from 3140 sequence date; of the pear shape (4) from S.D.
Prickly pear (opuntia) hedges are as frequent as in Sicily.
They are oval in section, but their maximum contour represents closely that of a pear with the stalk removed.
It derived its name from the abundance and luxuriance of the apple, pear and other fruit trees in the neighbourhood.
In all three zones occur the chestnut, aspen, willow (especially Salix laurea), hornbeam, birch, alder, juniper and yew; while the mountain ash, hazel, wild plum, wild pear and other wild fruit trees are found at rarer intervals.
From a careful series of experiments made in the Horticultural Society's Garden at Chiswick, it was found that where the soil is loamy, or light and slightly enriched with decayed vegetable matter, the apple succeeds best on the doucin stock, and the pear on the quince; and where it is chalky it is preferable to graft the apple on the crab, and the pear on the wild pear.
In the southern provinces flourish also various subtropical exotics, such as the banana, the West Indian cherimoya, and the prickly pear or Indian fig (Opuntia vulgaris), the last frequently grown as a hedge-plant, as in other Mediterranean countries, and extending even to the southern part of the table-land.
The species most liable to be struck are oaks, poplars and pear trees; beech trees are exceptionally safe.
Although the crop of orchard fruits was no greater in 1899 than in 1889 the Number of apple trees increased during the decade from 1,744,779 to 2,034,398, the number of peach trees from 19,057 to 48,819 and the number of plum trees from 10,151 to 18,137; in the number of pear trees and of cherry trees there was a slight decrease.
Plums are propagated chiefly by budding on stocks of the Mussel, Brussels, St Julien and Pear plums. The damson, wine-sour and other varieties, planted as standards, are generally increased by suckers.