In 1870 he became chief pastor and superintendent at Jena and soon afterwards professor ordinarius of theology, but in 1875 he was called to the chair of systematic theology at Berlin, having made his name by a series of articles on New Testament criticism and Johannine, and Pauline theology, which appeared in Adolf Hilgenfeld's Zeitschrift fiir wissenschaftliche Theologie, and by his Der Paulinismus, published in 1873 (2nd ed., 1890; Eng.
There is indeed so much that is Pauline in r Peter as to give distinct attractiveness to the hypothesis, which is most elaborately maintained by Zahn, that a larger share than usual in the composition of the letter was left to Silvanus (r Peter v.
Polycarp may have known of more than one Pauline note to Philippi, no longer extant, or he may be referring loosely to 2 Thessalonians, which was addressed to a neighbouring Macedonian church.
In rebuking it James unconsciously retracts the misapplied Pauline principle itself.
Whatever the currency in classical circles of the epistle as a literary form, it is irrational to put first in the development of Christian literature a general epistle, couched in fluent, even rhetorical, Greek, and afterwards the Pauline letters, which both as to origin and subsequent circulation were a product of urgent conditions.
On his return to France he studied at the ecole centrale des travaux publics, and his social education was accomplished in the salon of Pauline de Beaumont, the friend of Chateaubriand and Joubert.
Moreover, if Colossians be accepted as Pauline (and among other strong reasons the unquestionable genuineness of the epistle to Philemon renders it extremely difficult not to accept it), the chief matters of this more advanced Christian thought are fully legitimated for Paul.
The introduction of Pauline features, however, into the representation of Simon Magus is merely incidental.
Gamaliel and his pupil St Paul are better representatives of the non-hypocritical Pharisee; and the Pauline Epistles or the writings of Philo are the best extant examples of the manner and matter of their teaching.
But the more serious difficulties which to many minds still stand in the way of the acceptance of the epistle have come from the developed phase of Pauline theology which it shows, and from the general background and atmosphere of the underlying system of thought, in which the absence of the well-known earlier controversies is remarkable, while some things suggest the thought of John and a later age.