Silvicola; this can only be distinguished from the pasture mushroom by its elongated bulbous stem and its externally smooth cap. There is also a fungus well known to botanists and cultivators which appears to be intermediate between the pasture variety and the wood variety, named A.
In summer, indeed, the vast expanse is little better than an arid steppe; but in the winter it furnishes abundant pasture to flocks of sheep from the Apennines and herds of silver-grey oxen and shaggy black horses, and sheep passing in the summer to the mountain pastures.
Weak ewes, not safe to survive the hardships of spring, are brought in to better pasture during February and March.
This industry has prospered greatly, and the area of permanent pasture encroaches continually upon that of arable land.
Moreover, many proprietors contrived to curtail seriously the allotments which the peasants had possessed under serfdom, and frequently they deprived them of precisely the parts which they were most in need of, namely, pasture lands around their houses, and forests.
An insurrection of the Yorkshire peasants, which is to be ascribed in part to the distress caused by the enclosure of the commons on which they had been wont to pasture their cattle, and in part to the destruction of popular shrines, may have caused the king to defend his orthodoxy by introducing into parliament in 1539 the six questions.
I do not know the distribution and extent of the grazing marsh which is pasture or meadow and how much is grazed and periodically inundated with water.
The larger valleys of the Black Hills district contain fertile alluvial deposits washed from the neighbouring highlands, but in the plains adjoining these mountains the soils consist of a stiff gumbo suitable only for pasture land.
Enormous flocks are possessed by professional sheep-farmers, who pasture them in the mountains in the summer, and bring them down to the plains in the winter.
The soil is sandy but affords good pasture in some places, and has been farmed with some success; the flora is rich, and includes some rare species.