The Paraguayan occupation left the town partially in ruins, and it remained in a decadent condition until near the end of the century, when reviving industries in the state and a renewal of railway construction promoted its commercial activity and growth.
Though the discord resulting between the states on account of this failure was subsequently allayed for a time by a treaty granting to Brazil the right to navigate the river, every obstacle was thrown in the way by the Paraguayan government, and indignities of all kinds were offered not only to Brazil but to the representatives of the Argentine and the United States.
Grubb, Among the Indians of the Paraguayan Chaco (London, 1904); E.
The staple diet of the Paraguayans is still, as when the Spaniards first came, maize and mandioca (the chief ingredient in the excellent chipa or, Paraguayan bread), varied, it may be, with the seeds of the Victoria regia, whose magnificent blossoms are the great feature of several of the lakes and rivers.
A prominent industry is the gathering and preparation of mate or Paraguayan tea (Ilex paraguayensis), which is an article of export.
The invasion of Paraguay then took place, and a struggle involving an enormous sacrifice of life and treasure lasted for five years, only coming to a close when the Paraguayan forces were totally defeated and Lopez was killed at the battle of Aquidaban on the 1st of March 1870.