These were reunited under Albert IV., duke of Bavaria-Munich (1447-1508) and the upper Palatinate was added to them in 1628.
In his struggle with Frederick of Hohenstaufen (the emperor Frederick II.), but deserted his cause when Frederick invested his son, Otto, with the Palatinate of the Rhine in 1214.
In 1400 Rupert was elected German king, and when he died in 1410 his possessions were divided among his four sons: the eldest, Louis III., received the Rhenish Palatinate proper; the second son, John, obtained the upper Palatinate; while the outlying districts of Zweibriicken and Simmern passed to Stephen, and that of Mosbach to Otto.
These are Franconia (Franken), which embraces the districts of Bamberg, Schweinfurt and Wurzburg on the upper Main; Swabia (Schwaben), in which is included Wtirttemberg, parts of Bavaria and Baden and Hohenzollern; the Palatinate (Pfalz), embracing Bavaria west of the Rhine and the contiguous portion of Baden; Rhineland, applied to Rhenish Prussia, Nassau, Hesse-Darmstadt and parts of Bavaria and Baden; Vogtland, the mountainous country lying in the south-west corner of the kingdom of Saxony; Lusatia (Lausitz), the eastern portion of the kingdom of Saxony and the adjacent portion of Prussia watered by the upper Spree; Thuringia (Thulingen), the country lying south of the Harz Mountains and including the Saxon duchies; East Frlesland (Ost Friesland), the country lying between the lower course of the Weser and the Ems, and Westphalia (Westfalen), the fertile plain lying north and west of the Harz Mountains and extending to the North Sea and the Dutch frontier.
In later times, the establishment of a colony from the German Palatinate at Carrick-on-Suir in the reign of James I.
His father, George Schwartzerd, was an armourer under the Palatinate princes.
Louis' son, Otto the Illustrious (1206-1253), undertook the government of the Palatinate in 1228, and became duke of Bavaria in 1231.
The ill-considered journey to Madrid, in which Prince Charles, accompanied by Buckingham, hoped to wring from the Spanish statesmen a promise to restore the Palatinate in compliment for his marriage with the infanta, ended also in total failure.
Henry, however, found himself obliged to defend his title against Sophia, wife of Henry II., duke of Brabant, who was a daughter of the landgrave Louis IV., and it was not till 1263 that an arrangement was made by which Thuringia and the Saxon palatinate fell to Henry.
CASPAR SCHOPPE (1576-1649), German controversialist and scholar, was born at Neumarkt in the upper Palatinate on the 27th of May 1576 and studied at several German universities.