The landlord found land, labour, oxen for ploughing and working the wateringmachines, carting, threshing or other implements, seed corn, rations for the workmen and fodder for the cattle.
With a keen cutting-spade, Queequeg lances the gums; then the jaw is lashed down to ringbolts, and a tackle being rigged from aloft, they drag out these teeth, as Michigan oxen drag stumps of old oaks out of wild wood lands.
Of animals, which were consumed at the sacrificial banquets, we hear chiefly of horses, but also of oxen and boars.
As to the manual rites of the daily cult, all that can here be said is that incense, purifications and anointings with various Oils played a large part; the sacrifices consisted chiefly of slaughtered oxen and geese; burnt offerings were a very late innovation.
The Jews were mainly country-folk from the time of their settlement in Canaan to their final expulsion from the land by Titus and Hadrian, and the soil of Israelitish Palestine was better adapted to the raising of sheep and oxen than to the production of grain.
The autumnal subsidence of the river was followed by shallow ploughing performed by oxen yoked to clumsy wooden ploughs, the clods being afterwards levelled with wooden hoes by hand.
Great part is mountainous, but some very fertile valleys exist, to cultivate which 2000 yoke of oxen are employed.
The principal of these was ploughing the fields belonging to the lord, and for such ploughing the peasant had not only to appear personally as a labourer, but to bring his oxen and plough, or rather to join with his oxen and plough in the work imposed on the village: the heavy, costly plough with a team of eight oxen had to be made up by several peasants contributing their beasts and implements towards its composition.
In summer, indeed, the vast expanse is little better than an arid steppe; but in the winter it furnishes abundant pasture to flocks of sheep from the Apennines and herds of silver-grey oxen and shaggy black horses, and sheep passing in the summer to the mountain pastures.
The frail wooden ploughs with a lance-headed share that only scratched the surface soil, were then superseded by iron ploughs; steam threshers replaced the oxen which trod out the corn, and modern implements were widely adopted.