On farms of moderate size it is usual to hire steam tackle as required, the outlay involved in the purchase of a set being justifiable only in the case of estates or of very big farms where, when not engaged in ploughing, or in cultivating, or in other work upon the land, the steam-engine may be employed in threshing, chaff-cutting, sawing and many similar operations which require power.
The richer veins had evidently been long ago worked out, and nothing of sufficient value to justify further outlay was discovered.
Even friends of the railway presaged that such outlay could not by any possibility be remunerative; but the contrary became evident from the moment the line was opened on the 17th of September 1838.
The first problem on this side of expenditure is the due balancing of outlay by income.
The canal system of Orissa was never expected to be remunerative, since in five years out of six the local rainfall is sufficient for the rice crop. In1878-1879the area irrigated was 111,250 acres, and the outlay up to date was Rx.1,750,000.
All outlay by the state is brought into due co-ordination, and it becomes possible for constitutional government to supervise and direct it.
Owing to the costliness of the undertaking, and the death of the earl in 181 9, the works were suspended after an outlay of L10o,000, but his successor completed the scheme on a reduced scale at an expense of another X1 00,000.
It is probable that up to 1875, at least, there had been a larger outlay of labour, material and money, in reducing, levelling and reclaiming territory, and in straightening and widening thoroughfares 1 in Boston, than had been expended for the same purposes in all the other chief cities of the United States together.
From 1885-1886 onwards, outlay on public works, military and colonial expenditure, and especially the commercial and financial crises, contributed to produce annual deficits; but owing to drastic reforms introduced in 1894-1895 and to careful management the year 1898-1899 marked a return of surpluses (nearly 1,306,400).
Figures are not available for any exact comparison of outlay and return in other countries, but the earnings in European countries generally run to about half the expenditure.