Besides the general works on modern Italy, see the Marquis Costa de Beauregard's interesting volumes La Jeunesse du roi Charles Albert (Paris, 1899) and Novare et Oporto (1890), based on the king's letters and the journal of Sylvain Costa, his faithful equerry, though the author's views are those of an old-fashioned Savoyard who dislikes the idea of Italian unity; Ernesto Masi's Il Segreto del Re Carlo Alberto (Bologna, 1891) is a very illuminating essay; Domenico Perrero, Gli Ultim2 Reali di Savoia (Turin, 1889); L.
Again, in Oporto there is an area which combines every possible sanitary defect - dense overcrowding, great poverty, no light, no air, no drainage, no scavenging, water brought in buckets.
In June 1847 the Oporto junta surrendered, under promise of an amnesty, to a combined British and Spanish force, and the convention of Gramido (July 24, 1847) ended the war.
Of Morocco, Madrid, Lisbon and Oporto were added, and Spain was again invaded in 1119 and 1121, but the tide had turned, the French having assisted the Aragonese to recover Saragossa.
Gomes Coelho, better known as Julio Diniz, records his experiences of English society in Oporto in A Familia ingleza, and for his romantic idealism he has been dubbed British; Portuguese critics have accused him of imitating Dickens.
Soult Passage of expected the passage of the Douro to be attempted the Douro, near its mouth, with fishing craft; but Wellesley, by May 12,1809, a daring surprise, crossed (May 12) close above Oporto, and also by a ford higher up. After some fighting Oporto was taken, and Soult driven back.
Through him the suspicion was conveyed to the Medical Times and Gazette, in which the suggestion of plague at Oporto was made before any public mention of it in the town itself.
The metric system of weights and measures has been officially adopted, but many older standards are used, such as the libra (1.012 lb avoirdupois), alqueire (0.36 imperial bushel), moio (2.78 imp. bushels), almude of Lisbon (3.7 imp. gallons) and almude of Oporto (5.6 imp. gallons).
Soult (over 20,000), leaving Ney in Galicia, had taken and sacked Oporto (March 29, 1809); but the Portuguese having closed upon his rear and occupied Vigo, he halted, detaching a force to Amarante to keep open the road to Braganza and asked for reinforcements.
In 1809, after his defeat by Sir John Moore, he invadedPortugal and took Oporto, but, busying himself with the political settlement of his conquests in the French interests and, as he hoped, for his own ultimate benefit as a possible candidate for the throne, he neglected to advance upon Lisbon, and was eventually dislodged from Oporto by Sir Arthur Wellesley, making a painful and almost disastrous retreat over the mountains.