The first newspaper, the Onondaga Gazette, was established in 1823; and in 1825 the completion of the Erie Canal opened a new era of prosperity.
The Onondaga salt deposits were mentioned in the journal of the French Jesuit Lemoyne as early as 1653, and before the War of Independence the Indians marketed Onondaga salt at Albany and Quebec. In 1788 the state undertook, by treaty with the Onondaga Indians, to care for the salt springs and manage them for the benefit of both the whites and the Indians.
There are also deposits of clay suitable for making bricks, terra-cotta and tiles in nearly every county outside of this valley, and there are some pottery clays in Albany and Onondaga counties.
Among the hospitals and charitable institutions are the Syracuse hospital (1872) for infectious diseases, the Hospital of the Good Shepherd (1873), the Syracuse homoeopathic hospital (1895), the Syracuse hospital for women and children (1887), St Mary's infant and maternity hospital (1900) under the Sisters of Charity, St Joseph's hospital (1869) under Sisters of the Third Order of St Francis, the Syracuse home for aged women (1852), Onondaga county orphan asylum (private; 1841), and two other orphan asylums controlled by the Sisters of Charity, and the state institution for feeble-minded children (1896).
Most of the Indians were on eight reservations: the Allegany Reservation (30,469 acres) in Cattaraugus county; the Cattaraugus Reservation (21,680 acres) in Erie, Cattaraugus and Chautauqua counties; the St Regis Reservation (14,030 acres) in Franklin county; the Tonawanda Reservation (7548 acres) in Erie and Genesee counties; the Onondaga Reservation (7300 acres) in Onondaga county; the Tuscarora Reservation (624 acres) in Niagara county; the Oneida Reservation (400 acres) in Madison county; and the Shinnecock Reservation (400 acres) near Southampton, on Long Island.
He prepared plans for the construction of a canal between the Hudson river and Lake Champlain before 1776, and, in 1792-1796, carried to a successful conclusion a more pretentious scheme for connecting the Hudson with Lake Ontario by way of the Mohawk, Oneida Lake and the Onondaga river.
The Hamilton fauna which followed represents the admixture of the resident Onondaga fauna with new types which are thought to have come from South America, showing that faunal connections for marine life had been made between the interior of the United States and the lands south of the Caribbean Sea, a connection of which, before this time, there was no evidence.
Between 1800 and 1805 a dozen families settled here, and in the latter year a grist mill, the first manufacturing establishment, was built on Onondaga Creek.
The Onondaga Historical Association was organized in 1862, and after 21 years of inactivity was reorganized in 1892; it occupies its own building; its committee on natural science developed (1896) into the Onondaga academy of science.
The Onondaga fauna which succeeded appears to have resulted from the commingling of the resident lower Devonian fauna with new emigrants from Europe by way of the Arctic regions.