The chief articles of import are apparel and textiles, machinery and hardware, stimulants, narcotics, explosives, bags and sacks, books and paper, oils and tea.
The principal articles of import are shirtings, drills, jeans and twills, opium, woollens, steel, lead, needles, J apanese sea-weed and sugar; and of export, wool, skins, beans and pease, straw braid, coal, dates, tobacco and rhubarb.
Some English applications of free trade theory in recent times in the matter of import duties have been pedantic - the abolition of the shilling corn duty in 1869 by Robert Lowe (Lord Sherbrooke) being typical of this pedantry, though it is not the only instance.
The first five years of the existence of the state were greatly hampered by the provision of the Berlin Act prohibiting the imposition of any duties on goods imported into the Congo region, but at the Brussels conference, 1890, a declaration was signed by the powers signatory to the Berlin Act, authorizing the imposition of import duties not exceeding to ad valorem, except in the case of spirits, which were to be subject to a higher duty.
The average value of the principal articles of import and export (special trade) over quinquennial periods following 1890 is shown in the two tables below.
The exchange of domestic products between the states is greatly restricted through lack of cheap transportation facilities, and by the suicidal imposition of import and export duties by the states, either for revenue or for the protection of home industries.
No other article of import approaches cotton in importance, but a considerable trade is done in arms and ammunition, rice, sugar, flour and other foods, and a still larger trade in candles and matches (from Sweden), oil, carpets (oriental and European), hats and umbrellas.
Such classifications are, however, uninstructive, and it has been found practically necessary in financial writing to take the principal taxes by name, or by such a general grouping as that of import or stamp duties, and then describe their nature, characteristics and incidence.
Cotton Manufacture.-This was introduced into Ireland in 1 777 and under the protection of import duties and bounties increased so rapidly that in 1800 it gave employment to several thousand persons, chiefly in the neighbourhood of Belfast.