Mitscherlich in 1834, may be prepared by reducing nitrobenzene in alcoholic solution with zinc dust and caustic soda; by the condensation of nitrosobenzene with aniline in hot glacial acetic acid solution; or by the oxidation of aniline with sodium hypobromite.
By the action of the aluminium-mercury couple and water), but better, according to C. Goldschmidt (Ber., 1896, 29, p. 2307) by dissolving nitrobenzene in ten times its weight of ether containing a few cubic centimetres of water, and heating with excess of zinc dust and anhydrous calcium chloride for three hours on a water bath.
Sulphuric acid, with nitrobenzene (Z.
On warming this with copper powder, it gives a quantitative yield of nitrobenzene (A.
They are mostly distinguished by special trade names, and are mainly of two classes - those containing ammonium nitrate and nitrobenzene or nitronaphthalene, and those containing nitroglycerin and nitrocellulose, which are essentially weak dynamites.
The spectrum of nitrobenzene is also worth comparing with benzene and nitric acid.
It also appears as an intermediate product in the electrolytic reduction of nitrobenzene in sulphuric acid solution.
Meta-dinitrobenzene is formed by the direct nitration of nitrobenzene with fuming nitric acid, the product being poured into water and recrystallized from dilute alcohol.
Equally good comparisons have been obtained for solutions in other solvents such as acetic acid 3.88, formic acid 2.84, benzene 5.30, and nitrobenzene 6.95.
These con-, ditions pertain in cases where distillation with steam is successfully practised, the relatively high volatility of water being counterbalanced by the relatively high molecular weight of the other component; for example, in the case of nitrobenzene and water the ratio is I to 5.