The episcopal palace contains the ancient and valuable chapter library, of about 12,000 volumes and over 500 MSS., among them the palimpsest of the Institutiones of Gaius which Niebuhr discovered.
Within the first ten years of its existence it counted among its professors such names as Neander, Savigny, Eichhorn, Bockh, Bekker, Hegel, Raumer, Niebuhr and Buttmann.
During the next year three other members of the party died, leaving Niebuhr the sole survivor.
Arabia received very careful attention, in the 18th century, from the Danish scientific mission, which included Carsten Niebuhr among its members.
It is now generally held that he may possibly be the author of the last (although the claims of Hirtius are considered stronger), but certainly not of the two first, although Niebuhr confidently assigned the Bellum Africanum to him; the writer of these took an actual part in the wars they described, whereas Oppius was in Rome at the time.
To this was appended a critical dissertation on the historians who had dealt with the period (Zur Kritik neuerer Geschichtschreiber), which, showing as it did how untrustworthy was much of traditional history, was to be for modern history as epoch-marking as the critical work of Niebuhr had been in ancient history.
Livy regards him as a less trustworthy authority than Fabius Pictor, and Niebuhr considers him the first to introduce systematic forgeries into Roman history.
From the earliest age young Niebuhr manifested extraordinary precocity, and from 1794 to 1796, being already a finished classical scholar and acquainted with several modern languages, he studied at the university of Kiel.
Yet the passing notes of travellers from the time of Carsten Niebuhr show that antiquities are to be found.
The region most thoroughly explored is Yemen, in the southwest corner of the peninsula, where the labours of a succession of travellers from Niebuhr in 1761 to E.