The whole subject rests ultimately on the Newtonian law of motion and on some natural extensions of them.
In this remarkable work Kant, proceeding from the Newtonian conception of the solar system, extends his consideration to the entire sidereal system, points out how the whole may be mechanically regarded, and throws out the important speculation which has since received the title of the nebular hypothesis.
On the whole, however, Aristotle, Bacon and Mill, purged from their errors, form one empirical school, gradually growing by adapting itself to the advance of science; a school in which Aristotle was most influenced by Greek deductive Mathematics, Bacon by the rise of empirical physics at the Renaissance, and Mill by the Newtonian combination of empirical facts and mathematical principles in the Principia.
Under the influence of Leibnitz, Boscovich, Kant and Herbart, he supposed that bodies are divisible into punctual atoms, which are not bodies, but centres of forces of attraction and repulsion; that impenetrability is a result of repulsive force; and that force itself is only law - taking as an instance that Newtonian force of attraction whose process we do not understand, and neglecting that Newtonian force of pressure and impact whose process we do understand from the collision of bodies already extended and resisting.
Nothing is more remarkable in the history of discovery than the manner in which Ampere seized upon the right clue which enabled him to disentangle the complicated phenomena of electrodynamics and to deduce them all as a consequence of one simple fundamental law, which occupies in electrodynamics the position of the Newtonian law of gravitation in physical astronomy.
Foucault's pendulum is another example of motion relative to the earth which exhibits the fact that the earth is not a Newtonian base.
At each step there is a gain in itccu racy and comprehensiveness; and the conviction is cherishei that some system of rectangular axes exists with respeci to which the Newtonian scheme holds with all imaginabb accuracy.
His removal of the considerable discrepancy between the actual and Newtonian velocities of sound,' by taking into account the increase of elasticity due to the heat of compression, would alone have sufficed to illustrate a lesser name.
The abuse of this instance of Newtonian analysis betrays the whole origin of the current confusion of induction with deduction.
Aperture, mounted as a Newtonian telescope (with a silvered plane for the small mirror), when the surfaces are in fair average condition, is equal in light grasp to a first-rate refractor of 10-in.