Pre-eminent among these is the discovery, by Mr William Peppe, on the Birdpur estate, adjoining the boundary between English and Nepalese territory, of the stupa, or cairn, erected by the Sakiya clan over their share of the ashes from the cremation pyre of the Buddha.
These latter bore (obverse) a Nepalese emblem surrounded by eight fleurons containing the eight sacred Buddhist jewels, and (reverse) an eight-petalled flower surrounded by eight fleurons containing the names of the eight jewels in Tibetan characters.
This was the opportunity for a series of valuable exploratory journeys through the Tibetan provinces adjoining the Indian and Nepalese frontiers, which added greatly to our stock of information about Lhasa and the districts surrounding that city.
At the request of the Indian government the Nepalese government had the pillar, which was half buried, excavated for examination; and Dr Fiihrer, then in the employ of the Archaeological Survey, arrived soon afterwards at the spot.
The existence, a few miles beyond the Nepalese frontier, of an inscribed pillar had been known for some years when, in 1895, the discovery of another inscribed pillar at Nigliva, near by, led to the belief that this other, hitherto neglected, one must also be an Asoka pillar, and very probably the one mentioned by Hsuan Tsang.
It has a population of about 30,000, and its palace and buildings generally are of a more striking appearance than in other Nepalese towns.
The main features of Nepalese topography are now fairly well defined.
The welding together of the great Kosala kingdom, more than twice the size of England, in the very centre of the settled country, led insensibly but irresistibly to the establishment of a standard of speech, and the standard followed was the language used at the court at Savatthi in the Nepalese hills, the capital of Kosala.
It lies on the Uska-Nepal road at mile 19.75; and about half a mile south of the boundary pillar numbered 44 on the frontier line between British and Nepalese 1 A surname given to Pippin III.
Cardamoms are a valuable crop in the same locality, and also in the Nepalese Himalayas.