He made one vain attempt to regain his possessions in the Persian Gulf; but the Portuguese fleet which had promised to transport his troops to Bahrein was defeated by the imam of Muscat and forced to retreat to Goa.
Of these the port of Gwadar (which belongs to Muscat and is therefore foreign territory) is the most important.
In the neighbourhood of Palermo, Muscat and Malvoisie wines of very fair quality are made.
Dates are grown for the European market at Muscat and for local consumption on both sides of the Gulf, but not in considerable quantities.
In 1852 the Persians expelled the Muscat authorities from Bander Abbasi and its district, but retired when Muscat agreed to pay an increased rent.
Fifty miles to the north-west of Muscat this interior region may again be reached by the transverse valley of Semail, leading into the wadi Munsab, and from thence to Tyin.
After the Phoenicians, Babylonians, and Arabs came the Persians; though they never aspired to command of the seas and are indeed not a maritime race, the Persian Gulf was no obstacle to them, and at one time or another they occupied Muscat and parts of Oman and Bahrein, and penetrated into the greater part of Arabia.
Nummulitic limestones of Persia; Muscat series; and Bahrein series.
The Shuster opium is sent partly via Bushire to Muscat for transhipment to Zanzibar, and part is believed to be smuggled into India by way of Baluchistan and Mekran.
The stream of arms flowing from Zanzibar to Muscat continued to increase in volume, and in 1892 no less than 11,50o firearms were landed at Muscat, of which more than half were at once reexported.