In the Middle Kingdom these are gradually replaced by small models of the mummy itself, and the belief arose that when their owner was called upon to perform any distasteful work in the nether world, they would answer to his name and do the task for him.
So too the bull of Apis frol dack animal with white spots) was during its lifetime regarded tra(reincarnation of Ptah, the local god of Memphis, and similarly not Mnevis and Bacis bulls were accounted to be the living in s Es of Etom of Heliopolis and of Re of Hermonthis respec- cen ly; these latter cults are certainly secondary, for Ptah of 1 iself was never, either early or late, depicted otherwise than 0th iuman form, as a mummy or as a dwarf; and Etom and Re Hoi but different names of the sun-god.
It was not till the 18th century that the importance of mummy in all its forms waned, and in some of the least progressive quarters of central Europe it survived even to the middle of the 19th.
This led further to the medicinal use of fragments of the mummies themselves; and, finally, the starting-point was lost sight of, so that the dried or prepared flesh of criminals became one of the standard forms of mummy in the pharmacopoeia.
Tethmosis, to judge by the evidence of his mummy and the chronology of his reign, was already a grown man, yet no sign of the immense powers which he displayed later has come down to us from the joint reign.
A word may be added about the use of mummy in medicine.
In most of the tombs is a chamber in which the mummy was placed, the Egyptian Christians at first continuing this method of preserving the bodies of their dead.
In many cases the mummy had to be conveyed across the Nile, and boats were gaily decked out for this purpose.
Seqenenr is here a leading name; the mummy of the third Seqenenr, the earliest in.
Anubis was believed to have been the embalmer of Osiris: the mummy of Osiris, or of the deceased, on a bier, tended by this god, is a very common subject on funerary tablets of the late periods.