In general, the small cotton farmer was at the mercy of the commission merchant, to whom he mortgaged his crops in advance; but this evil has lessened, and in some districts the system of advancing is either nonexistent or very slightly developed.
If the owner is a married man his homestead cannot be sold except by the joint deed of himself and his wife; neither can it be mortgaged without his wife's consent except for purchase money or for the erection or repair of buildings upon it.
If the owner is a married man his homestead cannot be sold or mortgaged without his wife's consent.
The exemption can be claimed by the husband, wife, or other head of the family, by a written declaration duly acknowledged and recorded in the manner prescribed for conveyances; and the homestead can then be mortgaged or alienated by a husband only with the wife's consent, if the wife is at the time a resident of the state.
When his daughters were born he had assigned to each of them, for her dowry, an estate with three hundred serfs; but one of these estates had already been sold, and the other was mortgaged and the interest so much in arrears that it would have to be sold, so that it was impossible to give it to Vera.
In the 12th century it attained the rank of an imperial free town, but on being mortgaged in 1290 to Cleves it lost its privileges.
In 1375 the town was mortgaged to Bern, to which it was sold outright in 1384.
Some had mortgaged their houses, fields and vineyards to buy corn; others had borrowed to pay the taxes, and had sold their children to their richer brethren to repay the debt.
They cannot be sold or mortgaged entire; the law forbids the alienation for debt of a peasant's cottage, his garden or courtyard, his plough, his last six yutara 1 of land and the cattle necessary for working his farm.
Besides the Caisse there was the Railway Board, which administered the railways, telegraphs and port of Alexandria for the benefit of the bondholders, and the DaIra and Domains commissions, which administered the estates mortgaged to the holders of those loans.