In 1901 and again in 1905 the marquis de Segonzac, a Frenchman, made extensive journeys in the Moroccan ranges.
The western inner ranges are the most important of the whole system, and in the present article are described first as the Moroccan Ranges.
Between Spain and Morocco a treaty of the 5th of March 1894 established between the Camp of Melilla and Moroccan territory a zone within which no new roads were to be made, no herds to be allowed to graze, no land to be cultivated, no troops of either party, or even private persons carrying arms, to set foot, no inhabitants to dwell, and all habitations to be razed.
SPAIN (Espana), a kingdom in the extreme south-west of Europe, comprising about eleven-thirteenths of the Iberian Peninsula, in addition to the Balearic Islands, the Canary Islands, and the fortified station of Ceuta, on the Moroccan coast opposite to Gibraltar.
From Tlemcen the railway is continued westward to the Moroccan frontier at Lalla Maghnia, a distance of 44 m.
Apart from Ceuta, Spain possesses on the Moroccan seaboard Melilla, Alhucemas, Penon de Ia Gomera, Ifni, and the Chaffarinas islets.
The Moroccan system was visited, and in some instances crossed, by various European travellers carried into slavery by the Salli rovers, and was traversed by Rene Caille in 1828 on his journey home from Timbuktu, but the first detailed exploration was made by Gerhard Rohlfs in 1861-1862.
The Tawahhid (The Unity of God), said to have been written in Moroccan Berber and believed to be the oldest African work in existence, except Egyptian and Ethiopic, was the work of the Muwahhadi leader, Ibn Tumart the Mandi, at a time when the officials of the Kairawan mosque were dismissed because they could not speak Berber.
In the north the chief movements gave rise to the system of latitudinal folding and faulting of the Moroccan and Algerian Atlas, the last stages being represented by the formation of the Algerian and Moroccan coast-outline and the sundering of Europe from Africa at the Straits of Gibraltar.
The lower portion of the Moroccan Atlas (sometimes called the Middle Atlas), extending north - east and east from an undefined point to the north of the Great Atlas to near the frontier of Algeria, is crossed by the pass from Fez to Tafilalt.