The Oeningen beds of Baden, of Miocene age, have also yielded an extensive insect fauna, described fifty years ago by O.
From the well-known Hipparion, or Hippotheriu7n, typically from the Lower Pliocene Europe, but also occurring in the corresponding formation in North Africa, Persia, India and China, and represented in the Upper Miocene Loup Fork beds of the United States by species which it has been proposed to separate generically as Neo- lr.:.
The geological formations represented are the following in descending order: Recent or sub-recent Pleistocene Pliocene Miocene Lower Miocene Oligocene and Eocene Upper Cretaceous or Lower Eocene Upper Cretaceous Jurassic or Lower Cretaceous Carboniferous to Trias Archaean The latest movement to which the Gulf has been or is now being subjected is one of gradual elevation, of which traces are found in recent littoral concretes, now as much as 450 ft.
The Miocene period is unrepresented by any deposits in Great Britain, unless the Bovey lignite should belong to its earliest stage; we will therefore commence with the best known region - that of central Europe and especially of Switzerland, whence a prolific flora has been collected and described by Oswald Heer.
In Afghanistan, as in other regions near the great Eurasian system of folds, the Miocene includes extensive deposits of gypsum and salt.
In depth, which renders it scarcely possible that they were deposited in a continuous area, for such an enormous depression of the sea-floor could hardly have occurred since Miocene times without involving also Christmas Island.
Monocotyledons form one-sixth of the known Miocene flora, 25 of them being grasses and 39 sedges; but most of these need further study, and are very insufficiently characterized.
Coming to the Tertiary we find the Oligocene beds of Aix, of east Prussia (amber) and of Colorado, and the Miocene of Bavaria, especially rich in remains of beetles, most of which can be referred to existing genera.
There were, for instance, trogons, secretary-birds, parrots, and other now Ethiopian forms in Miocene France.
They are found on both sides of Smith Sound, rising to heights of 2000 ft., and underlie the Miocene and Cretaceous rocks of Disco Island, Noursoak Peninsula and the 2 E.