When the inland trade fell away and the traffic of the coast towns took the sea route, the ancient metropolis and the numerous inland emporia came to ruin, while the many colonies in the north were broken up and their population dispersed.
And is the metropolis of a mountainous and beautiful district.
At the time of the Arabian conquest Istakhr offered a desperate resistance, but the city was still a place of considerable importance in the 1st century of Islam (see Caeiphate), although its greatness was speedily eclipsed by the new metropolis Shiraz.
Belfast though constituting a separate county ranks as the metropolis of the district.
During the early part of the 12th century the Chinese recaptured it and reduced it from the rank of a metropolis to that of a provincial city of the first grade, and called it Yen-shan Fu.
Only here and there upon its fringe the identity of this great area with the metropolis is lost to the eye, where open country remains unbroken by streets or close-set buildings.
Kensal Green cemetery, the burial-place of many famous persons, is of great extent, but several large cemeteries outside the metropolis have come into use.
Hither St Benedict migrated from Subiaco in the early years of the 6th century, and established the monastery that became the metropolis of Western monachism.
Large numbers of business men and others who must of necessity live in proximity to the metropolis have their homes aloof from its centre.
It was only by the London Government Act 1899 that Woolwich was brought into line with other London districts, for in 1855, as it had previously become a local government district under a local board, it was left untouched by the Metropolis Management Act.