This kind of manna seems to be alluded to by Herodotus (vii.
Shir Khist, a manna known to writers on materia medica in the 16th century, is imported into India from Afghanistan and Turkestan to a limited extent; it is the produce of Cotoneaster nummularia (Rosaceae), and to a less extent of Atraphaxis spinosa (Polygonaceae); it is brought chiefly from Herat.
Closer examination also of P's narrative of the manna shows that its true position is after the departure from Mt.
Mannite is obtained by extracting manna with alcohol and crystallizing the solution.
A plausible explanation of R e 's action is supplied by the theory that an earlier account of the giving of the manna already existed at this point of the narrative.
On the French Alps a sweet exudation is found on the small branchlets of young larches in June and July, resembling manna in taste and laxative properties, and known as Manna de Briancon or Manna Brigantina; it occurs in small whitish irregular granular masses, which are removed in the morning before they are too much dried by the sun; this manna seems to differ little in composition from the sap of the tree, which also contains mannite; its cathartic powers are weaker than those of the manna of the manna ash (Fraximus ornus), but it is employed in France for the same purposes.
Fragments of this early story of Massah (testing) were incorporated by RP in his story of the manna and the quails, viz.
Under the same name of gaz-angubin there are sold commonly in the Persian bazaars round cakes, of which a chief ingredient is a manna obtained to the south-west of Ispahan, in the month of August, by shaking the branches or scraping the stems of Astragalus florulentus and A.
Cedria, or cedar resin, is a substance similar to mastic, that flows from incisions in the tree; and cedar manna is a sweet exudation from its branches.
Xvi.) P's version of the sending of the manna and quails.