CAVITE, a fortified seaport, the capital of the province of Cavite, Luzon, Philippine Islands, and the seat of the principal Asiatic naval station of the United States, on a forked tongue of land in Manila Bay, 8 m.
Laoag in north Luzon with a population of 19,699, Iloilo in Panay with a population of 19,054, Cebu with a population of 18,330, and Nueva Caceres in south Luzon (r0,201), were the only towns with a population exceeding ro,000; and Manila (219,928) was the only city.
The fact that the trade route to Manila passed through Vera Cruz, Mexico City and Acapulco entailed the settlement also of a few Chinese and Malays, chiefly on the Pacific coast.
The first railway in the Philippines was the line from Manila to Dagupan (120 m.) which was built by an English corporation under a guaranty of the Spanish government and was opened in 1892.
The natives care little for the garden vegetables common to Europe and America, but in the vicinity of Manila and other large centres of population the Chinese grow many of these for consumption by European and American inhabitants.
In 1685-86 the Pacific coast was ravaged by Dampier and Swan, and in 1709 Woodes Rogers, with Dampier as pilot, captured the Manila treasure galleon, a feat repeated by Anson in 1743.
In 1571 the city of Manila was founded and became the insular capital.
The first popular assembly, of 80 members, was opened at Manila on the 16th of October 1907, and since then the legislature has been composed of two branches, the Philippine Commission (five Americans and four, formerly three, Filipinos), and the Philippine Assembly.
The Philippine government also maintains here a bureau of science which publishes the monthly Philippine Journal of Science, and co-operates with the Jesuits in maintaining, in Ermita, the Manila observatory (meteorological, seismological and astronomical), which is one of the best equipped institutions of the kind in the East.
Against the clerical coterie that surrounded the king, and had not influence enough to prevent the appointment of Monsignor Nozaleda, formerly archbishop of Manila and a prelate of notoriously reactionary views, to the Important Ann.