And a tunnel directly across from the south terminus of Manhattan was completed in 1907.
So after a cab ride to the airport rental agency, we escaped the fumes of Manhattan on an August Friday noon and joined the city escapees heading north.
In 1629, chiefly to encourage agriculture, the Company issued its famous Charter of Privileges and Exemptions, which provided that any member might have anywhere in New Netherland except on Manhattan Island his choice of a tract of unoccupied land extending 16 m.
Columbia University and Cornell University (q.v.), are: Union University (1795, non-sectarian), at Schenectady; Hamilton College (1812, non-sectarian), at Clinton; Colgate University (1819, non-sectarian), at Hamilton; Hobart College (1822, non-sectarian), at Geneva: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (1824, non-sectarian), at Troy; New York University (1832, non-sectarian), in New York City; Alfred University (1836, non-sectarian), at Alfred; Fordham University (1841, Roman Catholic), in New York City; College of St Francis Xavier (1847, Roman Catholic), in New York City; College of the City of New York (1849, city); University of Rochester (1850, Baptist), at Rochester; Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn (1854, non-sectarian), at Brooklyn; Niagara University (1856, Roman Catholic), at Niagara Falls; St Lawrence University (1858, non-sectarian), at Canton; St Bonaventure's College (1859, Roman Catholic), at St Bonaventure; St Stephen's College (1860, Protestant Episcopal), at Annandale; Manhattan College (1863, Roman Catholic), at New York City; St John's College (1870, Roman Catholic), at Brooklyn; Canisius College (1870, Roman Catholic), at Buffalo; Syracuse University (1871, Methodist Episcopal), at Syracuse; Adelphi College (1896, non-sectarian), at Brooklyn; and Clarkson School of Technology (1896, non-sectarian), at Potsdam.
Brooklyn is connected with Manhattan by three bridges across the East river - the lowest, known as the Brooklyn, opened in 1883; another, known as the Williamsburg or East River bridge, opened in 1903; and a third, the Manhattan, was opened in 1909.
In the spring of 1620 Thomas Dermer, an English ship captain, on his way from Monhegan to Virginia, visited Manhattan Island and told the Dutch traders that they would not be allowed to remain.
The mainland, opposite the western end of Long Island, is traversed by the lower Hudson and other channels - submerged valleys - which form a branching bay with several islands, the largest of which are Staten and Manhattan Islands.
Late in the same year or early in 1615 a stockaded trading post called Fort Nassau was erected on Castle Island, now within the limits of Albany, and a few huts were erected about this time or earlier on the southern extremity of Manhattan Island; but no effort at colonization was as yet made.
Instead of pressing Washington further, Howe then returned to Manhattan Fort Island, and on the 16th of November captured Fort Washing- ton.
But the freedom of trade promoted dangerous relations with the Indians, and an attempt of Kieft to collect a tribute from the Algonquian tribes in the vicinity of Manhattan Island and other indiscretions of this officer provoked Indian hostilities (1641-1645), during which most of the outlying settlements were laid waste.