There are undrained, swampy districts in Campeche, in the vicinity of the Terminos Lagoon, where malarial diseases are prevalent, and the same conditions prevail along the coast where mangrove swamps are found.
The Guayas or Guayaquil river is in part an estuary extending northward from the Gulf of Guayaquil, bordered by mangrove swamps and mud banks formed by the silt brought down from the neighbouring mountains.
Great mangrove swamps supply unlimited fire-wood of the best quality.
The west coast throughout its whole length is covered to a depth of some miles with mangrove swamps, with only a few isolated stretches of sandy beach, the dim foliage of the mangroves and the hideous mud flats presenting a depressing spectacle.
The mangrove is the characteristic tree of the swamps.
The principal exports from Maracaibo are coffee, hides and skins, cabinet and dye-woods, cocoa, and mangrove bark, to which may be added dividivi, sugar, copaiba, gamela and hemp straw for paper-making, and fruits.
The coasts of the Andamans are deeply indented, giving existence to a number of safe harbours and tidal creeks, which are often surrounded by mangrove swamps.
The mangrove swamps at the north-west end of the harbour have been drained and partially built over.
The coast is generally so low as to be visible to navigators only within a very short distance, the mangrove trees being their only sailing marks.
On the low littoral zone the coast produced a rich tropical bush, in which the mangrove is very prominent.