And those that lye in a close under a hedge haue longe heare and thyck, and they will neuer pylle nor be bare; and by this reason the husbande maye kepe twyse so many catell as he did before.
And when he hath mowen his medowe, then he hath his medowe grounde, soo that if he hath any weyke catell that wold be amended, or dyvers maner of catell, he may put them in any close he wyll, the which is a great advantage; and if all shulde lye commen, than wolde the edyche of the come feldes and the aftermath of all the medowes be eaten in X.
Steam is turned on, and, the mass being brought to a clear condition with weak lye or water, strong lye is added and the boiling continued with close steam till the lye attains such a state of concentration that the soap is no longer soluble in it, and it will separate from the caustic lye as from a common salt solution.
As the lye becomes absorbed, a condition indicated by the taste of the goods, additional quantities of lye of increasing strength are added.
The lye from the strengthening boil contains much alkali and is used in connexion with other boilings.
Pens, when it is enclosed by reason of the compostying and dongyng of the catell that shall go and lye upon it both day and nighte; and if any of his thre closes that he hath for his come be worne or ware bare, than he may breke and plowe up his close that he hadde for his layse, or the close that he hadde for his commen pasture, or bothe, and sowe them with come, and let the other lye for a time, and so shall he have always reist grounde, the which will bear moche come with lytel donge; and also he shall have a great profyte of the wod in the hedges whan it is growen; and not only these profytes and advantages beforesaid, but he shall save moche more than al these, for by reason of these closes he shall save meate, drinke and wages of a shepherde, the wages of the heerdmen, and the wages of the swine herde, the which may fortune to be as chargeable as all his holle rente; and also his come shall be better saved from eatinge or destroyeng with catel.
Besides, from the ashes of the burned scraps of the whale, a potent lye is readily made; and whenever any adhesiveness from the back of the whale remains clinging to the side, that lye quickly exterminates it.
So soon as the tallow is melted a quantity of weak lye is added, and the agitation of the injected steam causes the fat and lye to become intimately mixed and produces a milky emulsion.
Suppose that a pure soap without resin is to be made - a product little seen in the market - the spent lye is run off, steam is again turned on, pure water or very weak lye run in, and the contents boiled up till the whole is thin, close and clear.
Either common salt or strong brine in measured quantity is added to the charge, and, the soap being insoluble in such salt solution, a separation of constituents takes place: the soap collects on the surface in an open granular condition, and the spent lye sinks to the bottom after it has been left for a short time to settle.