One species, however, Distira semperi, is confined to the landlocked freshwater Lake Taal at Luzon in the Philippines.
The Visayans are the principal inhabitants of the islands in the central part of the archipelago (Panay, Cebu, Negros, Leyte, Bohol, Samar, Masbate and Paragua) and on the north and east coasts of Mindanao; they were perhaps the most civilized people in the archipelago when discovered by the Spaniards, by whom they were originally called Pintados because they were in the habit of painting their bodies; but since then their progress has been less rapid than that of the Tagalogs - who constitute the bulk of the population of Manila and central Luzon and the majority of the population of Mindanao - who are now the most cultured of the brown races in the Philippines.
They are the principal inhabitants of the provinces of Lepanto-Bontoc and Benguet in north Luzon and are numerous in the mountain districts of neighbouring provinces.
Sultan Bulkeiah was otherwise known as Nakoda Ragam; he was the greatest warrior of Brunei and made military expeditions to Java, Malacca, Luzon and all the coasts of Borneo.
Each of the larger islands between Luzon and Mindanao, except Samar and Bohol, is traversed longitudinally by a single mountain range with occasional spurs.
In Luzon trachytic tuffs are sometimes interstratified with nummulitic limestone, thus showing that the eruptions had already begun in the Eocene period.
Between Luzon and Mindanao are Samar (5031 sq.
Iron ore has been found in other provinces of Luzon and in the islands of Cebu, Panay and Marinduque.
Laoag in north Luzon with a population of 19,699, Iloilo in Panay with a population of 19,054, Cebu with a population of 18,330, and Nueva Caceres in south Luzon (r0,201), were the only towns with a population exceeding ro,000; and Manila (219,928) was the only city.
Most of the hemp (538,200 acres in 1902) is grown in south Luzon and in Samar and Leyte, but smaller crops are produced in Cebu, Mindoro, Marinduque, north Mindanao and south Negros; the crop became of commercial importance about 1855, and in 1907 the yield for export amounted to 112,895 tons.