HANS NIELSEN HAUGE (1771-1824), Norwegian Lutheran divine, was born in the parish of Thuno, Norway, on the 3rd of April 1771, the son of a peasant.
In 1537, when the Protestant divines signed the Lutheran Articles of Schmalkalden, Melanchthon appended to his signature the reservation that he would admit of a pope provided he allowed the gospel and did not claim to rule by divine right.
The question between the Lutheran (Augustinian) and Reformed (Philonic) division of the ten commandments was mixed up with controversy as to the legitimacy of sacred images not designed to be worshipped.
It led him to oppose the Lutheran view of the value of the outward:'means of grace, such as the ministry of the word and the sacraments.
MARTIN CHEMNITZ (or KEMNITZ) (1522-1586), German Lutheran theologian, third son of Paul Kemnitz, a cloth-worker of noble extraction, was born at Treuenbrietzen, Brandenburg, on the 9th of November 1522.
Here the sect had gained considerable influence, through the adhesion of Rothmann, the Lutheran pastor, and several prominent citizens; and the leaders, Johann Matthyszoon or Matthiesen, a baker of Haarlem, and Johann Bockholdt, a tailor of Leiden, had little difficulty in obtaining possession of the town and deposing the magistrates.
CHRISTOPH ERNST LUTHARDT (1823-1902), German Lutheran theologian, was born at Maroldsweisach, Bavaria, on the 22nd of March 1823.
He was sincerely religious; but his wellmeant efforts to unite the Lutheran and Reformed Churches, in celebration of the tercentenary of the Reformation (1817), revealed the limits of his paternal power; eleven years passed in vain attempts to devise common formulae; a stubborn Lutheran minority had to be coerced by military force, the confiscation of their churches and the imprisonment or exile of their pastors; not till 1834 was outward union secured on the basis of common worship but separate symbols, the opponents of the measure being forbidden to form communities of their own.
It is the seat of a Lutheran bishopric which extends over the provinces of Viborg and St Michel with portions of Tavastehus and Nyland; it possesses a beautiful cathedral, and a high school (where the well-known Finnish poet Runeberg lectured for many years), and is the seat of a court of appeal.
The educational establishments include a Roman Catholic and a Lutheran gymnasium, a Roman Catholic school and college and two technical institutions, the Georgstift for daughters of state servants and a conservatoire of music. Hildesheim is the seat of considerable industry.