Thus at the peace of Fontainebleau (September 2, 1679) Denmark, which had borne the brunt of the struggle in the Baltic, was compelled by the inexorable French king to make full restitution to Sweden, the treaty between the two northern powers being signed at Lund on the 26th of September.
The towns with a population exceeding 15,000 in 1900 are Stockholm (300,624), Gothenburg (130,609), Malmo (60,857), Norrkoping (41,008), Gefle (29,522), Helsingborg (24,670), Karlskrona (23,955), Jonkoping (23,143), Upsala (22,855), Orebro (22,013), Lund (16,621), Boras (15,837), Halmstad (15,362).
See Lund (Troels), Danmarks og Norges Historie i Slutningen of det X VI.
The faculties at Upsala and Lund are theology, law, medicine and philosophy (including both art and science).
Yet, throughout this chaos, one thing made for future stability, and that was the growth and consolidation of a national church, which culminated in the erection of the archbishopric of Lund (c. 1104) and the consequent ecclesiastical independence of Denmark.
Lars Johan Hierta (1801-1872) was the leading journalist, Johan Henrik Thomander, bishop of Lund (1798-1865), the greatest orator, Matthias Alexander Castren (1813-1852) a prominent man of science, and Karl Gustaf af Forsell (1783-1848), the principal statistician of this not very brilliant period.
One of the most noteworthy Scandinavian periodicals has been the Nordisk Universitets Tidsskrift (1854-1864), a bond of union between the universities of Christiania, Upsala, Lund and Copenhagen.
There are one or more agricultural societies in each lan, and there are various state educational establishments in agriculture, such as the agricultural high schools at Ultuna near Upsala, and at Alnarp near Lund in Skane, an important agricultural centre, with dairy schools and other branch establishments.
Finally, there are numerous horticultural societies, large nurseries and gardening schools at Stockholm, Alnarp and elsewhere, and botanical gardens attached to the universities of Lund and Upsala.
As a compensation for territory thus withdrawn the Danish archbishop of Lund was made legate and perpetual vicar and given the title of primate of Denmark and Sweden.