Between the second and third wars of England and the United Provinces came the short War of Devolution (1667-68) - a war of sieges in the Low Countries in which the French were commanded chiefly by Turenne.
He lent the weight of his authority to that system of coercion and repression which enslaved Italy, desolated Germany with war, and drowned the Low Countries in blood.
He served in Germany and the Low Countries as aide-de-camp to General (Lord) Ligonier, and was present at Dettingen, Fontenoy and Roucoux.
By the treaty of Venloo, signed on the 7th of September 1543, Gelderland was now definitely amalgamated with the Habsburg dominions in the Netherlands, until the revolt of the Low Countries led to its partition.
Into England silk manufacture was introduced during the reign of Henry VI.; but the first serious impulse to manufactures of that class was due to the immigration in 1585 of a large body of skilled Flemish weavers who fled from the Low Countries in consequence of the struggle with Spain then devastating their land.
The loss this brought to the city was, however, compensated for by the immigration of Protestant refugees from the Low Countries and Jews from Spain and Portugal.
In 1762 appeared the Contrat social at Amsterdam, and Emile, which was published both in the Low Countries and at Paris.
From Leiden he wrote (9 June 1585) to Lord Burghley advising the assumption of the protectorate of the Low Countries by Elizabeth.
That was the origin of the expeditions into Italy on which the house of Valois was two centuries later to squander the resources of France unavailingly, compromising beyond the Alps its interests in the Low Countries and upon the Rhine.
His Annals of the Low Countries was begun as an official duty while he held the appointment of historiographer, and was being continued and retouched by him to the last.