Albeit of illustrious descent, the genealogies which represent Arnulf as an Aquitanian noble, and his family as connected - by more or less complicated devices - with the saints honoured in Aquitaine, are worthless, dating from the time of Louis the Pious in the 9th century.
Herford owes its origin to a Benedictine nunnery which is said to have been founded in 832, and was confirmed by the emperor Louis the Pious in 839.
He became one of the best soldiers and trusted counsellors of Charlemagne, and in 790 was made count of Toulouse, when Charles's son Louis the Pious was put under his charge.
Called THE Bald (823-877), Roman emperor and king of the West Franks, was the son of the emperor Louis the Pious and of his second wife Judith and was born in 823.
Under the auspices of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious he initiated a scheme for federating into one great order, with himself as abbot general, all the monasteries of Charles's empire, and for enforcing throughout a rigid uniformity in observance.
There is a story - based, however, on no good evidence - that Walaf rid devoted himself so closely to letters as to neglect the duties of his office, owing to which he was expelled from his house; but, from his own verses, it seems that the real cause of his flight to Spires was that, notwithstanding the fact that he had been tutor to Charles the Bald, he espoused the side of his elder brother Lothair on the death cf Louis the Pious in 840.
The division that Louis the Pious made at Aix in 817 among his three sons, Lothair, Pippin and Louis, was of like character, since he reserved the supreme authority for himself, only associating Lothair, the eldest, with him in the government of the empire.
Colmar (probably the columbarium of the Romans) is first mentioned, as a royal villa, in a charter of Louis the Pious in 823, and it was here that Charles the Fat held a diet in 884.
The theologians whom Louis the Pious convened at Paris in 825, to answer the letter received from the iconoclast emperor Michael Balbus, were as hostile to the orthodox Greeks as to the image-worshippers, and did not scruple to censure Pope Adrian for having approved of the empress Irene's attitude.
The Saalhof, built on the site of the palace erected by Louis the Pious in 822, overlooking the Main, has a chapel of the 12th century, the substructure dating from Carolingian times.