Marie zealously pushed her favourite towards office, and had gone so far as to absent herself from court for three months on account of the king's persistent refusal, when Charles, duc de La Vieuville, then head of the council, in need of her aid in his negotiations with reference to the marriage of her daughter Henriette Marie, finally agreed to force Richelieu's appointment to office upon the king, Louis XIII.
De Lavergne, Les Assemblees provinciales sous Louis XVI (Paris, 1864).
In his old age he was engaged in incessant conflicts with his Aragonese and Catalan subjects, with Louis XI.
To these regions came St Louis and Raimon Lull, and one may in passing remember the strength of Christianity in Proconsular Africa in the days of Tertullian and Cyprian, and in Egypt under Clement of Alexandria, Origen and Athanasius.
A strong party, however, cast some doubts upon the legitimacy of the young princes, as the marriage of their parents had not been recognized by the emperor Charles the Bald; consequently it was proposed to offer the crown to the East Frankish ruler Louis, a son of Louis the German.
They were dispersed again by the revolution of July 1830, but soon reappeared and, though put to much inconvenience during the latter years of Louis Philippe's reign, notably in 1845, maintained their footing, recovered the right to teach freely after the revolution of 1848, and gradually became the leading educational and ecclesiastical power in France, notably under the Second Empire, till they were once more expelled by the Ferry laws of 1880, though they quietly returned since the execution of those measures.
The political position of the governments of the Restoration and of Louis Philippe was such that they were unwilling to forfeit support by pushing measures in which, after all, they were not themselves deeply interested.
Spain had to cede to Louis XIV,, Franche Comt, Dunkirk and half of Flanders.
Kossuth (Hamburg, 1853); Louis Kossuth, Memoirs of my Exile (London, 1880); Pulszky, Meine Zeit, mein Leben (Pressburg, 1880); A.
Opposed to absolutism, Louis took great interest in the work of organizing the Bavarian constitution (1818) and defended it against Metternich and the Carlsbad Decrees (1819); he was also one of the most zealous of the ardent Philhellenes in Germany at the time.