The telephone system is extensive, including long-distance wires to Yokohama, Osaka and other large towns.
The nucleus of the army was formed of armoured horsemen, excellently practised for long-distance fighting with bow and javelin, but totally unable to venture on a hand-to-hand conflict, their tactics being rather to swarm round the enemys squadrons and overwhelm them under a hail of missiles.
The system of the British Post Office is worked as follows: A subscriber desiring a long-distance connexion calls up his local exchange in the ordinary way, and the operator there, being informed that a trunk connexion is desired, extends the subscriber's line to the Post Office by means of a record circuit.
Thus there is a differentiation between the long-distance traveller who desires to be carried from one extreme of the city to the other and the short-distance traveller who is going between points at a much less distance.
So much of the expense of the handling, both of freight and of passengers, was independent of the length of the journey that a mileage rate sufficiently large for short distances was unnecessarily burdensome for long ones, and was bound to destroy long-distance traffic, if the theory were consistently applied.
In all countries passenger trains must vary in weight according to the different services they have to perform; suburban Weight trains, for example, meant to hold as many pas ah d sengers as possible, and travelling at low speeds, do not weigh so much as long-distance expresses, which include dining and sleeping cars, and on which, from considerations of comfort, more space must be allowed each occupant.
These inter-area or long-distance lines, called trunk circuits in England, terminate at one exchange in each local area, and between that exchange and the various district exchanges junction circuits are provided for the purpose of connecting subscribers to the trunk lines.
The principle of this system is to offer cheap fares and relatively low tariffs for greater distances, and to promote, therefore, long-distance travelling.
Trunk or long-distance working is complicated by the necessity for recording all calls.
The difficulty was first satisfactorily overcome in the long-distance transmitter, invented by A.