At starting, when the full load is to be lifted, the balance chain uncoils, and continues to do so until the desired equilibrium between the working loads is attained, when it is coiled up again in the reverse direction, to be again given out on the return trip.

Waddell (De Pontibus, New York, 1898) proposes to arrange railways in seven classes, according to the live loads which may be expected from the character of their traffic, and to construct bridges in accordance with this classification.

In the case of factories and buildings used for storage purposes the maximum variable load which can be imposed for any serious length of time on each floor must be used without reduction in computing the loads of the lower column, and proper allowances must be made for vibrating loads.

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By constructing several partial polygons, and computing the relations between the loads and resistances which are determined by the application of that theorem to each of them, with the aid, if necessary, of Moseleys principle of the least resistance, the whole of the relations amongst the loads and resistances may be found.

Deep were then sunk, and the chalk taken from horizontal tunnels was brought to the surface and spread on the land at the rate of about 60 loads per acre.

The large and handsome oxen of Gujarat in Bombay and of Hariana in the Punjab are excellently adapted for drawing heavy loads in a sandy soil.

Steam at high pressure exhausting into the atmosphere is still commonly used, but the great power required for raising heavy loads from deep pits at high speeds has brought the question of fuel economy into prominence, and more economical types of the two-cylinder tandem compound class with high initial steam pressure, superheating and condensing, have come in to some extent where the amount of work to be done is sufficient to justify their high initial cost.

There are many structures at present in existence bearing considerably greater loads than this, and the granite ashlar masonry of at least one, the Bear Valley dam in California, is subject to compressive stresses, reaching, when the reservoir is full, at least 40 to 50 tons per sq.

Under its Turkish name of Behram, Assus is still the commercial port of the southern Troad, being the place to which loads of valonia are conveyed by camels from all parts of the country.

In some cases as little as 40 loads per acre have been used with benefit, in others 180 loads have not been too much.