C. Rives in 1831, by which France had bound herself to pay an indemnity of twenty-five millions of francs for French spoliations of American shipping chiefly under the Berlin and Milan decrees, and the United States in turn agreed to pay to France 1,500,000 francs in satisfaction of French claims. Livingston's negotiations were conducted with excellent judgment, but the French Chamber of Deputies refused to make an appropriation to pay the first instalment due under the treaty in 1833, relations between the two governments became strained, and Livingston was finally instructed to close the legation and return to America.
The Livingston family then led the Dissenters, who later became Whigs, and the De Lancey family represented the Anglican Tory interests.
WILLIAM LIVINGSTON (1723-1790), American political leader, was born at Albany, New York, probably on the 30th of November 1723.
Livingston, TheLivingstons of Livingston Manor (1910).
See Theodore Sedgwick, Jr., Life of William Livingston (New York, 1833); and E.
Detroit was founded in 1701 by Antoine Laumet de la Mothe Cadillac (c. 1661-1730), who had pointed out the importance of the place as a strategic point for determining the control of the fur trade and the possession of the North-west and had received assistance from the French government soon after Robert Livingston (1654-1725), the secretary of the Board of Indian Commissioners in New York, had urged the English government to establish a fort at the same place.
In the north the Rocky Mountains consist principally of two parallel ranges, the Lewis and Clark Range to the east, and the Livingston Range to the west, which were formed by a great overthrust; between them is the Waterton-McDonald valley, 8-15 m.
Through the columns of the Independent Reflector, which he established in 1752, Livingston fought the attempt of the Anglican party to bring the projected King's College (now Columbia University) under the control of the Church of England.
William Livingston graduated at Yale College in 1741, studied law in the city of New York, and was admitted to the bar in 1748.
From 1880 to 1885 the first brines were obtained in Wyoming and Genesee counties by boring deep wells into beds of rock salt, and in 1885 the mining of the extensive deposits of rock salt in Livingston county was begun.