For the nature and method of preparing these surfaces see respectively Engraving (and allied articles), Lithography and Typography.
The art of lithography greatly affected the production of maps.
Copperengraving, for which it was formerly noted, is no longer carried on; but printing, lithography and publishing have acquired a considerable development, one of the best-known Continental newspapers being the Allgemeine Zeitung or Augsburg Gazette.
In 1868 at Kyelang he published by lithography A Short Practical Grammar of the Tibetan Language, with special reference to the spoken dialects, and the following year a Romanized Tibetan and English Dictionary.
In Mahommedan countries lithography alone is employed.