This explains a good deal of the possible instability; and, from a practical point of view, it coincides with the fact that such a large amount of energy can be stored in our most intense explosives such as dynamite, the explanation being that hydrogen is attached to carbon distant from oxygen in the same molecule, and that only the characteristic resistance of the carbon linkage prevents the hydrogen from burning, which is the main occurrence in the explosion of dynamite.
He also showed how changes in constitution effected dispersions to a far greater extent than they did refractions; thus, while the atomic dispersion of carbon is 0.039, the dispersions due to a double and treble linkage is 0.23 and 0.19 respectively.
The conception of linkage needs to be deepened by the realization of the middle term as the ground of nexus in a real order which is also rational.
As carbon tends to hold the atom attached to it, one may presume that this property expresses itself in a predominant way where the other element is carbon also, and so the linkage represented by -C-C-is one of the most difficult to loosen.
We may also notice the disruption of unsaturated acids at the double linkage into a mixture of two acids, when fused with potash.
Only contain single carbon linkages, then the number of such linkages is 2n - m, and if the thermal effect of such a linkage be X, then the termAisobviously equal to (2n - m)X.
In general, therefore, it may be considered that the double linkages are not of exactly the same nature as the double linkage present in ethylene and ethylenoid compounds, but that they are analogous to the potential valencies of benzene.
If we represent graphically the impacts in the second unit of time, we perceive that they point to a configuration in which the double linkage is between the carbon atoms i and 6, and the single linkage between i and 2.