The greater part of the land in this section was comprised in vast estates such as Rensselaerwyck, Livingston, Scarsdale, Phillipse, Pelham and Van Cortlandt manors, and on these the leasehold system with perpetual leases, leases for 99 years or leases for one to three lives had become general.
Wherever corn is cultivated, leasehold predominates.
In Latium leasehold and farming by landlords prevail, but cases of, nezzadria and of improvement farms exist.
In 1894 was passed the Advances to Settlers Act, under which state money-lending to farmers on mortgage of freehold or leasehold land was at once begun.
In Sardinia landlord-farming and leasehold prevail.
In pure leasehold the landlord demands at least six months rent as guarantee, and the forfeiture of any fortuitous advantages.
In Sicily leasehold prevails under special conditions.
In the Abruzzi and in Apulia leasehold is predominant.