In 1822 it was raised to the rank of a city, and in 1841, as a reward for its loyalty in revolutionary wars of that province, it was distinguished by the title of Leal e valorosa (loyal and valorous).
Da Silva Mendes Leal (12 parts, Lisbon, 1856-1897); Diogo Barbosa Machado, Bibliotheca lusitana (4 vols., Lisbon, 1741-1759); Innocencio da Silva and (after vol.
Da Silva Mendes Leal (v.-ix.) and J.
King Edward (Duarte) collected a precious library composed of the ancient classics, some translated by his order, as well as medieval poems and histories, and he wrote a moral treatise Leal comselheiro, and hints on horsemanship, or Livro da ensinanra de bem cavalgar toda sella.