In Russian Lapland alone there are three, due to the influence of Norwegian, Karelian and Russian (Lonnrot, Ada Soc. Sci.
The Scandinavian portion of Lapland presents the usual characteristics of the mountain plateau of that peninsula - on the west side the bold headlands and fjords, deeply-grooved valleys and glaciers of Norway, on the east the long mountain lakes and great lake-fed rivers of Sweden.
Above the sea, though in Swedish Lapland it is found on the slope of the Sulitelma as high as 1200 ft., its upper limit being everywhere lower than that of the pine.
The hostility of Poland and the break up of Russia involved him in two overseas contests for the possession of Livonia and Ingria, while his pretensions to Lapland brought upon him a war with Denmark in the last year of his reign.
They sailed in May 1553, but Willoughby and all his crew perished on the Lapland coast, Chancellor, however, was more fortunate.
When Erik Blood-axe, son of Harold Haarfager, visited Bjarmaland in 922, he found Gunhild, daughter of Asur Tote, living among the Lapps, to whom she had been sent by her father for the purpose of being trained in witchcraft; and Ivan the Terrible of Russia sent for magicians from Lapland to explain the cause of the appearance of a comet.
He travelled in Finland and Lapland in 1873-4, and in 1875 made a special study of archaeology and ethnology in the Balkan States.
The common squirrel, whose habits are too well known to need special description, ranges over the whole of Europe and Northern Asia, from Ireland to Japan, and from Lapland to North Italy; but specimens from different parts of this wide range differ so much in colour as to constitute distinct races.
In Russian Lapland matters followed much the same course.
Into Lapland to measure the length of a degree of the meridian (see Earth, Figure Of), and on his return home he became a member of almost all the scientific societies of Europe.