The study of law (filth), which rests on Koran and tradition, is more difficult and complex, and begins, but is often not completed, in the third year.
Even while the Akils are assembled, strangers are readily enough admitted to the khalwas; but as long as these are present the ordinary ceremonies are neglected, and the Koran takes the place of the Druse Scriptures.
Scepticism as to the divine origin of the Koran led him to seek the true religion in an eclectic system.
Now when we consider that at that time there were many Moslems who had heard the Koran from the mouth of the Prophet, that other measures of the imbecile Othman met with the most vehement resistance on the part of the bigoted champions of the faith, that these were still further incited against him by some of his ambitious old comrades until at last they murdered him, and finally that in the civil wars after his death the several parties were glad of any pretext for branding their opponents as infidels; - when we consider all this, we must regard it as a strong testimony in favour of Othman's Koran that no party found fault with his conduct in this matter, or repudiated the text formed by Zaid, who was one of the most devoted adherents of Othman and his family, and that even among the Shiites criticism of the caliph's action is only met with as a rare exception.
In the same sense the term is used in the Koran of both Adam and David as the vicegerents of God.
On the whole, while many parts of the Koran undoubtedly have considerable rhetorical power, even over an unbelieving stylistic reader, the book, aesthetically considered, is by Weak- no means a first-rate performance.
The fact of his having devoted his life and talents to chronicling the renown of fire-worshipping Persians was, however, somewhat of a crime in the orthodox caliph's eyes; in order therefore to recover his prestige, Firdousi composed another poem of 9000 couplets on the theme borrowed from the Koran of the loves of Joseph and Potiphar's wife - Yusuf and Zuleikha (edited by H.
Every sentence of the Koran was to be interpreted in a general and universal sense; the special application to the circumstances of the time it was written was denied.
In short, however imperfectly the Koran may have been redacted, in the majority of cases the present suras are identical with the originals.
And since the use of the Koran in public worship, in schools and otherwise, is much more extensive than, for example, the reading of the Bible in most Christian countries, it has been truly described as the most widely-read book in existence.