From the 11th century B.C. the Chinese used to call by the name of Kiang (or Shepherds) the tribes (about 150 in number) of nomads and shepherds in Koko Nor and the north-east of present Tibet; but their knowledge continued to be confined to the border tribes until the sixth century of our era.
This river, called Nam Kong by the Shans, Thanlwin by the Burmese, Lu Kiang, or Nu Kiang, or Lu Tzu Kiang by the Chinese, is the longest river in Burma, and one of the wildest and most picturesque streams in the world.
The greater part of the province forms a plain, and its most noticeable feature is the Han river, which runs in a south-easterly direction across the province from its northwesterly corner to its junction with the Yangtsze Kiang at Hankow.
As a conqueror he extended his sway from the still unsubdued Kiang tribes of the north to Ladak in the west, and in the south he carried his power through Nepal to the Indian side of the Himalayas.
The kiang has also larger and more horse-like hoofs, and the tail is haired higher up, thus approximating to Equus caballus przewalskii.
The Yangtsze Kiang is the principal river of the province, and is of great importance for foreign commerce, supplying direct water communication between some of the principal tea-growing districts and the neighbourhood of Hang-chow.
These asses inhabit desert plains or open table-land; the kiang dwelling at elevations of about 14,000 ft.
Wu-hu on the Yangtsze Kiang is the only open port in this province.
Cases of fertile union are recorded between the horse and the quagga, the horse and the bonte-quagga or Burchell's zebra, the horse and the onager and kiang or Asiatic wild asses, the common ass and the zebra, the ass and bontequagga, the ass and the onager, the onager and the zebra, and the onager and the bonte-quagga.
The first and largest has two races, the chigetai (Equus hemionus) of Mongolia, and the kiang (E.